The gharnâti orchestra is different from that of the âla because of the predominance of plucked strings on bowed instruments.
Since the 18th century, it has undergone a certain number of modifications due to the introduction of violins and violas, then later, that of banjos and mandolines.
The Ahmad Pirou orchestra may be divided in three groups:
The plucked strings comprise two Arab lutes ‘ûd masrî with five rows of double strings plus a low-pitched single string, an Algerian lute kwîtra, which is longer in shape and has only four rows of double strings, a mandoline and a banjo.
The bowed instruments, that is four violins  (kamân or kamenja), always have gut strings.
The musicians hold them vertically on the left knee so as to keep the chin free for choral singing.
The percussion instruments include a darbûka, a clay goblet drum, which plays the base rhythm, an a târ, a small frame drum with cymbals, which “embroiders” the rhythm performed by the darbûka.
Listening to the first bars of this nûbâ, it is apparent that the melody closely blends two modes : ramal and rasd.

In fact, it may be observed that if the ramal mode, deeply marked by two augmented seconds E flat – F sharp and B flat – C sharp, remains the principal mode, it is used mainly at the end of a phrase as a modal signature.

The transcription of the first bars of the msaddar shows clearly how both modes are intertwined and bring up a remarkable modal ambiguity and create an effect of contrast which emphasizes the poetic expression.

[1] Istikhbâr, San’a 1 M saddar.
This movement begins with an istikhbâr, a prelude improvised of the mandoline, immediately followed by the msaddar.
[ghusn 1] It is Spring, the birds are singing at the tops of their voices.
[ghusn 2] In the garden, the roses are budding.
[ghusn 3] Fill our glasses and let me drink with you.
[matla‘] Among the leaves, elegant beings are passing around their glasses.
[ruju’] Oh my beloved, I know of no greater

[2] San’a 2 :Btâyhî

Since you are here still awake my friend, Let us abandon ourselves to the pleasure of love
and wine.
Do you not see the river of morning overtaking? the armies of shadows?
When the cloud weeps its dew the flowers smile. And while the meadow takes on a new mantle,
The birdsong welcoming the morning arouses us.

[3] Istikhbâr and inshâd
Instrumental and vocal improvisations.

[4] San’a 3 :D arj

Come and see the nutshells scattered on all sides.
The breeze has carried them while they are still covered with dew.
In this meadow of bewitching colours, come take what is your due.
Oh my friend, come into the garden that we enjoy life to the full!
The pretty feathered canaries weigh down the leaves of the trees.
The birds are singing for the universe, may God bless them!
Oh my friend, let us go walking, fill the glasses.  Ah, how I love my Beauty when she says: “I
obey you!”
Oh my friend, come into the garden that we
enjoy life to the full!

[5] San’a 4,5 &6

San’a 4

Oh my friends, when the flowers open, how beautiful their colour becomes!
I hear their voices moaning Like a lover separated from his beloved:
“Long is the separation.” But however interminable that separation may
be,  At the moment of meeting again, he will be sure to recognize her.

San’a 5

Oh doe eyes, oh gazelle brows,  Why this startled look, why such coldness?
Is so difficult to part, who can bear it?
Lovers make moan, but what can be done?
I seek a delicate and enlightened go-between, but in vain.
There is no one to bring me relief. They have left me, will they return?
All hope of seeing them again has vanished.
I would have liked them to leave without bidding me farewell.
But we have left one another, it is destiny. Ah! I cry out with pain.

San’a 6

My noble friend, my love grows each day.
Let us meet for my heart is breaking. Make of me a slave among slaves.
But have mercy on my heart.  Ah! I cry out with pain.

[6] San’a 7&8

San’a 7

Oh my friend, my patience is at an end  And my love as strong as ever.
He whom I love as forgotten me, he is taking his revenge,
Although I have committed no crime.
Of Light of my Eyes, God wants us to me united.
May the wicked tongues be cursed!
Good fortune has at last smiled on me, my beloved
is close by me.
To celebrate this joy, I have invited all my
friends. And my enemy remains outside.

San’a 8

Go, messenger of my beloved.  In the name of our troths and hope.
Tell him of my long wait.
I pray God that he will respond to my wishes and reunite us.
Soon I will enjoy happiness in your company
May the wicked tongues be cursed!
For our separation has been so long. That our reunion must come soon.